The ancient Greek comedy which flourished in the fifth century BC represents more than six hundred plays of which only eleven Aristophanes' comedies and thousands of fragments remain. This work traces the origins of the genre, its structure and its rules, by studying more specifically the work of Aristophanes, its dramaturgy and its relationship with the politics of the time, its comic and poetic art. A great place is also given to the buildings of the Greek theatre of the fifth century, its setting in scene, the course of the representations and the importance of the theatre in the city. Pascal Thiercy is professor of Greek language and literature at the University of Western Brittany, president of the French Institute of Ancient Theater and director of the Center for Studies and Representations of Ancient Theater. He also directed several Aristophanes comedies.